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Breeding of grapevines on the resistance brings modern ecological varieties, which are characterized by a lower need for chemical treatments. So, what does resistance of the grapevine mean and by what is resistance caused? On the earth there are about 70 kinds of vines. 40 species in America, 30 in East Asia and one in Eurasia. They all have completely different properties. Vine varieties still vary in their properties depending on certain continents. Vitis riparia, Vitis rupestris, Vitis berlandieri and Vitis labrusca (the first three of which were the basis for the origin of the various specimens), one of East Asia (Vitis amurensis) and one of Eurasia (Vitis vinifera).
Nearly all of the current complex resistant grape varieties that come from Russian and Ukrainian breeding are crossbreeds between the American species Vitis labrusca, East Asian species Vitis amurensis and Eurasian cultivar Vitis vinifera.
We can say that the vine selection on resistance, which is an effort to combine all the economic benefits of these three types. This is a very difficult task! Judge yourselves.
Euro-asian species (Vitis vinifera without resistance) offers us attractive berries for consumption. The Central Asian varieties of this species, for example, from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Dagestan, are used in Russian cultivation. Katta-Kurgan, Hadzhimurat, Gezen Dai. Are strong growing, have the largest grapes and most delicious berries with firm meat. But the Central Asian varieties are thermophilic, tolerate no frost and the maturity of the grapes is very late. They also suffer from fungal diseases.
European grape varieties are more resistant to cold, but the grapes and berries are too small and not so delicious. They were particularly suitable for wine production. American species are strongly growing, very resistant to drought, real and false mildew, but most of them are not edible. Nevertheless, the crossbreeds of the American species Vitis labrusca with the European Vitis vinifera occurred frequently in the past, although they did not have optimal grape properties. There were known varieties Izabella, Othello, Delaware with simple cultivation and practically no care other than the spring cut. Gradually it was found that these varieties are not suitable for wine production, but they had a place in small gardens for the production of fresh fruits and juices rich in pectins.
Vitis amurensis is one of the most frost-resistant species (-40 to -42 ° C). Has a short growing season, strong growth, pelvic resistance, but no resistance to phylloxera. At present the breeders are trying to breed new grape varieties with high resistance to diseases and frost and at the same time high grape quality (larger and more tasty berries) with the use of preserved Genofond.
The greatest successes in vine cultivation have been found by the wine-growing research institutes in Odessa in Ukraine (breeder E.N. Dokuchayev, L.N. Meleschko, A.D. Ljannoj), In Novocherkassk in Russia (I.A. Kostrikin) and Weinbauelite in Ukrainian Zaporozhye (E.A. Kljutschikov).
Especially their table grape varieties have been very popular in the past ten years in the vineyards in the south of Ukraine and Russia. As you can see for yourself, vine cultivation pursues the goal of achieving an attractive super delicious table grape with the maturity three months after sprouting the eyes, frost-resistant and also pelvic resistance. At the moment we can say that the vine growing slowly but surely go in the direction of this ideal. The move for this is winemaking spread also in such climatic areas, where it was not possible before the time. It seems that viticulture will soon become not only the privilege of southern Slovakia.